Chromosomes and Genes

Plants are of lower and higher category.
Plants of higher category are a defined nucleus.
Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes.
They are thread like structure and carry vital genetic information.
The size of a chromosome ranges from .25μm to .30μm.
Plant chromosomes are bigger than animal chromosomes.
The monocotyledon plants have larger chromosome than the dicotyledons.
During cell division the shape of the chromosome changes.
They appear as thin coil shaped elastic structure called chromonemata.
Each chromosome has two symmetrical structures called chromatids.
Chromatids are joined at points called centromere or kinetochore
The centromere divides the chromosomes into two parts.
Each is known as Chromosome arm
There are the primary and secondary constriction holding the centromeres
It is here the DNA sequencing is present
The end of the chromosome is the telomere
Some chromosomes also have a round end known as the satellite
The chromosomes in the satellite are known as the Sat-chromosomes.
The type of bending distinguishes between the primary and secondary constriction
In secondary constriction bending is at centromere
This is where the RNA sequencing is present
Genes are present on the chromosomes
They adapt a linear pattern
In gene the DNA is coded with the help of specific proteins
Gene is made of nucleic acid
DNA has genetic codes of plants and animals
RNA has the code of virus
Similar pairs of chromosomes are homogeneous
Different pairs of chromosomes are heterogeneous
Karyotypes is the defining of chromosomes with various parameters